A bone may be broken by external violence, and this may be direct or indirect, the former when a wheel passes over the leg and breaks it, the latter when there is an accident and one or more ribs are broken. In the latter example, the point where the violence is applied is not the part where the bone is broken, but the rib is bent, and snaps at its weakest point. A rib can also be broken by excessive coughing.
Various circumstances, causes bones to break, that is why for example, when the bones of an elderly person are broken, it is because the earthly constituents have been increased, while the tough cartilages or gristly, have decreased. Some people are born with weak bones, as well as Rickets Disease can weaken the bones.
A person who sustains a broken bone may be conscious of the snap, and there is likely to be a considerable amount of pain, and most likely shock. If it is a limb bone, there is loss of the use of the limb, but if a main bone is broken, if, for example, the fibula (the outer of the two bones between the knee and the ankle) alone is broken, a person can stand alone fairly well. When only one bone of the arm or leg is broken, there may be little displacement of the fragments, because the other bone acts as a splint. There is likely to be discoloration the spot where the broken bone is, and the same succession of colors as is observed after a bruise. A broken pinky toe will also happen to us, here is an article you can read on causes and treatment for this fracture.
In the first aid treatment of a broken bone, the first thing to be addressed is the bleeding, there is also usually a considerable amount of shock to deal with. If it is a compound one, then more likely there is bleeding, or from the rapid and severe swelling of the limb, it may be concluded that serious bleeding is taking place within the limb, and a tourniquet should be applied.
Shock is treated with warmth, and stimulants may be given, but only in the event of a little bleeding. If it is compounded, and a piece of bone is protruding, this may be dabbed with iodine, and if there is dirt present, then as much of it as possible is to be removed by light rubbing with a clean rag, after which, iodine should be applied freely. However, if a doctor can be present, then the wound should be covered with a clean cloth, and the cleaning left to him.
Before moving a person with a broken bone, the fracture must be reduced, or set. This means the ends of the fragments should be brought into their natural position as far as possible, then place a splint on the broken limb, to prevent it from moving. A splint may consist of anything which is sufficiently rigid and light, a broom handle, umbrella, walking stick, baton, even folded cardboard or newspapers. I should be long enough to prevent movement at the joint above and below the injury, and should be well padded.
A splint should be broad enough to prevent the bandages from cutting into the flesh, or if it is a narrow splint, like a broom handle, then additional small splints should be placed around the limb. If the splints are too broad, they will not maintain a firm position.